Dwelling on Africa: Country Report “Rwanda”

Rwanda Flag
Rwanda Flag

The Republic of Rwanda is a shoreless country located in the eastern part of the central part of Africa. It borders with Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The capital of the country is Kigali. It is also called Land of a Thousand Hills due to its rough terrains. The country, which has recently attracted considerable attention and has risen economically, is preferred in terms of tourism and investment.

Rwanda is called Africa’s Singapore in the international arena because of its steady growth in the economy in recent years and its aim to become a regional trade center in East Africa.

Rwanda- Turkey Relationship

The trade volume between Turkey and Rwanda were approximately $ 21 million in 2018. For the last three years, Turkish companies have made more than 20 investments in Rwanda, with a total value of approximately US $ 400 million. Since 1992 180 Rwandan students were provided scholarships by the Government of Turkey. This number has increased in recent years.

Background at Rwanda

In 1890, the rule of Rwanda was the German colony and passed to the Belgians after the First World War. On July 1, 1962, Rwanda declared its independence and put an end to Belgian colonial rule. In 1990, the Tutsi ethnic rebellion, which has been located near the Uganda border, has launched a civil war targeting Hutu ethnic origin. Between April and June 1994, 750,000 Tutsi and 50,000 Hutu were killed.

According to official data published by the Rwandan State, 1,074,017 people died during this genocide.

Economical in Rwanda

In 1998, Rwanda signed an agreement with the International Monetary Fund to repair its fragile economy. According to the agreement, the first condition was the rehabilitation of the government infrastructure, in particular, the justice system, the continuous repair and expansion of infrastructure, health and education facilities.

The government focused primarily on developing manufacturing and service industries and on eliminating trade and development barriers.

Tea and coffee exports are the basis of the Rwandan economy. The country entered a period of growth in 2006 and achieved economic growth of 8% the following year.

Current foreign investments are concentrated in the fields of commercial enterprises, mining, tea, coffee, and tourism. Now, minimum wage and social security arrangements are in place, and the pre-war independent trade unions have been reactivated.

General Informations of Rwanda

Climate: Slightly humid climate.
Population: 10.21 Million (2017)
Ethnic Groups: Tutsi, Hutu, and Twa
Languages: French (official), English (official), Swahili (official), Kinyarwanda
Religions: Christianity (93.4%), Islam (1.8%)

Natural Resources of Rwanda

Cassiterite, coltan, coffee.

Agricultural Products of Rwanda

Coffee, tea, cassava, peas, soy, banana, corn.

Industry in Rwanda

Coffee, tea, flea pesticides, coltan, and tin oxide.

Exports Partners of Rwanda

Kenya, Congo DC, China, Malaysia, United States, Esvatini

Imports – Partners of Rwanda

Kenya, Uganda, UAE, China, India, Tanzania, Belgium, Canada

Currency of Rwanda

Rwandan Franc (RWF)

Energy in Rwanda

Rwanda’s primary energy consumption increased from an annual average of 2.32% to a level of 0.02 quadrillion Btu in 2016 from 0.01 quadrillion Btu in 2016.

Rwanda plans to increase its existing 216 MW electricity production to 512 MW by 2023.

Oil Sector in Rwanda

Oil consumption in Rwanda is 23 million liters per month. This constitutes approximately 20% of total national imports and this rate has been steadily increasing in the last five years (12% on average annually).

Agriculture Sector in Rwanda

70% of the working population of Rwanda is in the agricultural sector and agriculture is Rwanda’s main economic activity. The agricultural sector accounts for 33% of GDP. Due to Rwanda’s emphasis on agriculture, the agricultural machinery industry, cold chain infrastructure, livestock farms, fertilizer production, irrigation projects, and the agricultural product processing industry have gained considerable importance.


Center for Africa Studies (AFRAM) which located in Ankara, is an organization facilitating under the administration of African Affairs Council (AFAC). It makes various researches about Africa to enhance economic and cultural bounds between Africa and Turkey. AFRAM’s publishings has been shared with different institutions as they require to obtain.


Africa Observatory is one the publishing of AFRAM and it has been published each two weeks. It has been delivered to different institutions via e-mail.